Identification Terms on the European Union

QMV: Qualified majority voting – The Lisbon system

Majority of countries: 55%, comprising at least 15 of them, if acting on a proposal from the Commission or from the High Representative, or else 72%, and Majority of population: 65%.

It is a formula used in voting to determine what is a qualified majority in order to pass a proposal in the Council of the EU. It stipulates that for a legislature to pass, it has to receive the vote of the majority of countries, 55%, comprising at least 15 of them and the majority vote of countries by population, with a minimum of 65%. Plus, at least 4 countries to block a proposal.



Spitzenkandida literally means top candidate or party list leader. The German word entered the European Union lexicon in 2013 after the centre left Party of European Socialists committed itself to naming a Spitzenkandidat for the next EU parliamentary elections. The Spitzenkandidat would then become the party’s choice for the EU’s most high-profile job – European Commission president.


Principle of direct effect

The principle of direct effect enables individuals to immediately invoke a European provision before a national or European court. The direct effect principle therefore ensures the application and effectiveness of European law in EU countries.


Principle of supremacy

ECJ ruled that Costa, and other individuals in the Community, did have the right to challenge a national law on the basis of its alleged incompatibility with Community law. It is an EU law principle that when there is conflict between European law and the law of Member States, European law prevails; the norms of national law have to be set aside.


Principle of mutual recognition

The principle of mutual recognition means that a product lawfully marketed in one Member State should be allowed to be marketed in any other Member State, even when the product does not fully comply with the technical rules of the Member State of destination.


Principle of state liability

The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has developed a general principle of state responsibility for non-compliance with EU law. State liability derives from the fact that EU Member States are responsible for the creation and above all for the implementation and enforcement of EU law. Enforcement of state liability for violations of rights granted to individuals by EU law, including in the fields of employment and industrial relations, is carried out through the national courts of the Member State


European Commission

The Commission is responsible for preparing, coordinating, managing and implementing EU policies.


Acquis communautaire

Acquis communautaire is the accumulated legislation, legal acts, and court decisions which constitute the body of European Union lawPrimary and secondary. Regulations and directives.


Ordinary legislature procedure

NO bill can become a law if the same version of the bill was not approved by both the EUP and the Council of Ministers.


Relays actor hypothesis

Changing the presidency of the Eu is good for the overall Union.


Degressively proportional formula

Degressively proportional formula is an approach to the allocation (between regions, states or other subdivisions) of seats in a legislature or other decision-making body. Degressive proportionality means that while the subdivisions do not each elect an equal number of members, smaller subdivisions are allocated more seats than would be allocated strictly in proportion to their population


Democratic Deficit

Democratic Deficit is the notion that the governance of the European Union (EU) in some way lacks democratic legitimacy. The term was initially used to criticise the transfer of legislative powers from national governments to the Council of (national government) Ministers of the EU


Parliamentary committee

Parliamentary committee is a subdivision of Parliament dealing with specific policy areas. Prepares and debates proposals before sending them to the full, plenary Parliament for final decision-making.  


Action for annulment

Action for annulment is a case brought before the Court of Justice in which an interested party asks the Court to declare a decision by any of the EU’s institutions to be void.


European Parliament Political Groups

European Parliament Political Group is a group formed by different member of the EU parliament that brings together similar ideological groups to facilitate cooperation in the EU Parliament.


Cohesion in European Parliament Political Groups

Cohesion in European Parliament Political Groups is the extent to which MEPs of the same political group vote together. If all MEPs from a political group vote exactly the same, cohesion is high. If some MEPs in a political group vote for a proposal or amendment while other MEPs from that same group vote against, cohesion is low. .



Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party is the third biggest party group in the European Parliament. Their MP are usually Europhilic’s and quite liberal economicly speaking. They would be the closest to what is called Libertarians in the EU. They are important because, for being the third bigger party group, they have quite some power in the decision making of the EU. European political party mainly active in the European Union, composed of 60 national-level liberal parties from across Europe.


Angela Merkel 

Angela Merkel is the Chancellor of Germany. She has been in office for more than a decade. She is important because she is one of most powerful leaders in the world and in the EU. Together with France, Germany is the leading country in the EU project, giving her an even more important status.


Austrian presidential election, 12/4/16 

It was a really important event since it was being disputed between a green party, Europhilic candidate and a populist, anti-immigrant, Eurosceptic candidate. After the Brexit and Trump’s victory, there was a fear of a wave of populism in the western world and a victory in Austria by populists could have confirmed a trend that could have led to the disintegration



The Berlaymont is an office building in Brussels, Belgium, that houses the headquarters of the European Commission, which is the executive of the European Union. It is important because very important decisions for the futures of the EU are taken in this building. Since it is the house of the executive in the EU, it could be comparable to the white house in the USA.



Bosman was the name of a Belgian football player who wanted to play in France and who had his name market in an important European Court of Justice decision. It is important because the ruling BY the court ruled that the system as it was constituted a restriction on the free movement of workers and was prohibited under EU law. This gave free pass to all European player to play around the EU once.


Brexit: why people voted to leave

There were several reasons why people voted to leave the EU. Among them, they believed that internal migration in the Eu had brought too many foreigners to the UK. Moreover, they also believe that the lack of internal borders within the EU would facilitate the arrival of Syrian migrants, which could increase the risk of terrorism attacks. Furthermore, the UK has not completely recovered since the 2008 financial crisis and some voters made a connection between bad economy and the power of the EU over the kingdom through regulations. It is important because some of these issues are pertinent and should be dealt with to avoid more Exits from the EU and its possible dissolution.



The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the agricultural policy of the European Union. It implements a system of agricultural subsidies and other programmes. It’s very important because it comprises about 39% of the EU budget as of 2013. It is a very contentions program who critics believe protects too much farmers from outside competition and its cost does not allow hinders the ability of the EU to invest in other programs. However, it is an important political tools in EU to galvanize support for it in some sectors.


Cassis de Dijon

Cassis de Dijon was a landmark case because it institutionalized the principle of mutual recognition.



The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) is the organized, agreed foreign policy of the European Union (EU) for mainly security and defence diplomacy and actions. It is important but it is the closest to what the EU has of a department of defense. Recently, it became responsible for organizing EU peacekeeping missions. If in the future the EU comes to have its proper military forces, the CFSP would be the responsible for it.


Charles de Gaulle

Charles de Gaulle was a very nationalistic French president during the 60s. He was a strong critic of the EU (which at the time was still the European Economic Community). He was important because he opposed the entrance of the United Kingdom in the community for several times. He also criticized the EU for the lacking of vision, which ended up pressuring to find one eventually. Moreover, after his victory in the empty chair crisis, the EU changed, giving each member a power to veto matters they believed were important to them but also eliminated the need for unanimity in decision making. Easing the political process in the Eu.


Comparative politics approaches to EU

Comparative politics approaches to EU is way to understand EU politics by comparing the EU with national political systems. While the EU’s nature and character fall short of that of sovereign nation-states, it nevertheless can be considered a political system in its own right. It’s is important because by doing so, we are seeing the EU as a nation state, giving it even more legitimacy to what one day can become a country in itself as the US is today.



COREPER is the Committee of Permanent Representatives. Highest preparatory body for meetings of the Council and European Council. They are important because of their role in preparing the agenda for the ministerial Council of the European Union meetings; it may also take some procedural decisions. While the national ministers of each member state are the face of the decision making in the Council of the EU, the coreper are permanently working everyday to produce policy.


Costa v. ENEL

This case, which the ECJ decided in 1964, dealt with a fundamental question about the relationship between national law and Community law. It ruled, firstly, that Costa did not have legal standing to challenge the legality, under Community law, of ENEL’s nationalization, since the Treaty of Rome did not have direct effect. More importantly, though, the ECJ ruled that Costa, and other individuals in the Community, did have the right to challenge a national law on the basis of its alleged incompatibility with Community law. The Costa v. ENEL judgment established the principle of supremacy.


Council Decision 2015/1601

Also known as quota law, it as a decision by the Council to distribute 120000 asylum seekers who were in Italy and Greece around other EU countries according to a quota decided by the Council. The quota was decided by the size and wealth of the country and if that country had already received enough refugees. It was important because it was very controversial for imposing a quota to some countries who were outright against it such Hungary and Poland, creating instability in the heart of the EU. Moreover, it brought a feeling of community where a problem of some of the members (Greece and Italy) is shared by the others.


Council of the EU

Together with the European Commssion, it is one of the main institutions of the EU. It represents the executive governments of the EU’s member states. It is important because it gives guidance to the EU togheter with the commission. Moreover, it is the multilateral aspect of the EU, demonstrating to critics that member states national Governments have a saying in the EU.


Court of Justice of the EU

Court of Justice of the EU is the juriciary branch of the EU. it is tasked with interpreting EU law and ensuring its equal application across all EU member states. The Court was established in 1952 and is based in Luxembourg. It is important because due to the unique characteristic of the EU, national courts of members states sometimes refer a case to the Court of Justice when there is conflict of interpretation. Moreover, as some of the case studied such as Cassis Dijon and Bosman, EU court of justice decision have real life effect on the citizens of the EU.


Customs union

A customs union is a type of trade bloc which is composed of a free trade area with a common external tariff. The participant countries set up common external trade policy. In the case of the EU, it is important because it is one of the main states like characteristics of the EU and one of main steps for total economic integration. Moreover, some of its purpose is to increase economic efficiency and establish closer political and cultural ties between the member countries.


Direct Action

Direct Action is when cititizens of the EU bring complaints directly to the European Court of Justice through the subsidiary General Court.


Direct effect

Direct effect is a principle in the EU court of justice ruling that established that EU treaties were legally effective independently of the legislation of the member states. It is important because it means that The Community constitutes a new legal order of international law for the benefit of which the states have limited their sovereign rights, albeit within limited fields and the subjects of which comprise not only member states but also their nationals.


Direct election of the EP

Elections to the European Parliament take place every five years by universal adult suffrage. 751 MEPs[1] are elected to the European Parliament, which has been directly elected since 1979. No other EU institution is directly elected, with the Council of the European Union and the European Council being only indirectly legitimated through national elections.



A directive is a legal act of the European Union, which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result. It can be distinguished from regulations which are self-executing and do not require any implementing measures. A Directive is a type of EU legislation that needs to be transposed into national law by the member state governments. Because Directives need to be transposed, they allow for variation between member states. In fact, this is exactly what they are supposed to do. By laying down a set of more general common European norms and leaving the specification of those norms to the member states, it is possible to achieve a degree of convergence among the member states while allowing at the same time for adaptations to national circumstances.



Within the European Union, a directorate-general is a branch of an administration dedicated to a specific field of expertise.

The European Commission: Commission Directorates-General are each headed by a director-general, who reports to the European Commissioner in charge of (i.e. politically responsible for) the corresponding policy area; Each member state heads one. Therefore, we have 28 as at today. They are important because they are responsible for some specific areas…as the departments in the executive in the US.


Donald Tusk

Donald Tusk is the presidente of the European Council.


Dublin regulation

The Dublin Regulation is a European Union (EU) law that determines the EU Member State responsible to examine an application for asylum seekers seeking international protection under the Geneva Convention and the EU Qualification Directive, within the European Union. It is the cornerstone of the Dublin System, which consists of the Dublin Regulation and the EURODAC Regulation, which establishes a Europe-wide fingerprinting database for unauthorised entrants to the EU. The Dublin Regulation aims to “determine rapidly the Member State responsible [for an asylum claim]”[1] and provides for the transfer of an asylum seeker to that Member State. Usually, the responsible Member State will be the state through which the asylum seeker first entered the EU.


The European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR)[1] is the sixth biggest political group in the European Parliament. In the political scale, they are conservatives and slightly Eurosceptic. Tory, Polish Law and Justice


Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy (EFDD or EFD2) is a seventh extreme Eurosceptic[5] political group in the European Parliament. Nagel Farage is from here.


Empty-chair crisis

In 1965 the Commission proposed to the Council a different way of financing the Common Agricultural Policy. Because it would give the European Parliamentary Assembly and not the Council the right to decide upon the budget, de Gaulle felt that this undermined the power of member states. Tensions further increased when de Gaulle objected to a scheduled change in decision-making rules in the Council that would introduce a new rule for making decisions, called qualified majority voting (QMV). This would eliminate the possibility for a member state to veto proposals in some policy areas. The French president decided to withdraw his ministers from participation in the meetings of the Council. This paralysed decision-making for half a year, because the remaining members did not want to make any drastic decisions until France returned. It did so after the member states agreed on a declaration that came to be known as the Luxembourg Compromise.


Luxembourg Compromise

Luxembourg Compromise was an agreement allowing a member state to block a decision in the Council if it declares the matter to be of ‘vital national interest’. after the empty chairs crisis, de Gaulle. Slow down decision making in the eu.



The European People’s Party (EPP) is a European political party. The EPP has been the largest party in the European Parliament since 1999 and in the European Council since 2002. It is also by far the largest party in the current European Commission. They are conservative and very Europhilic.


EU Constitutional Treaty

The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE (commonly referred to as the European Constitution or as the Constitutional Treaty)) was an unratified international treaty intended to create a consolidated constitution for the European Union (EU). It would have replaced the existing European Union treaties with a single text. which included referendums endorsing it in Spain and Luxembourg. However the rejection of the document by French and Dutch voters in May and June 2005 brought the ratification process to an end. Following a period of reflection, the Treaty of Lisbon was created to replace the Constitutional Treaty. This contained many of the changes that were originally placed in the Constitutional Treaty but was formulated as amendments to the existing treaties.


EU-Turkey agreement of 3/18/16

On 18 March 2016 the European Union and Turkey reached an agreement aimed at solving the issue of the high numbers of migrants crossing the Mediterranean Sea from Turkey to Greece. This agreement intended to close the people-smuggling routes and reduce the number of migrants entering the EU. It focused principally on the following issues: returning to Turkey any migrant entering Greece from Turkey irregularly; and resettling, for every migrant readmitted by Turkey, another Syrian from Turkey. In order to compensate Turkey, the EU committed to accelerating the visa liberalization roadmap and allocating six billion euros to Turkey to deal with the refugee crisis. Finally, both the EU and Turkey agreed to improve humanitarian conditions in Syria to allow Syrians to remain in the country.



Since 1974 the European Commission has systematically monitored public opinion on Europe through its Eurobarometer surveys. They followed up on a 1972 report by the European Parliament (the Schuijt report) which pressed for a more active and effective information policy on the part of the European Commission in order to educate the public about Europe. Every spring and autumn surveys are carried out in all member states amongst 1,000 randomly selected citizens from the age of fifteen upwards. This makes it possible to analyse and compare developments in public opinion across the member states as well as over time. The bulk of the questions focus on evaluating the EU: their country’s membership, the speed of the integration process, attachment to the European Union, trust in the different EU institutions, citizen knowledge of and interest in EU affairs and their attitudes towards further expanding the EU. To put these into perspective more general questions on people’s personal situation and their evaluation of policies in general are included as well.



Europe of Nations and Freedom (French: Europe des nations et des libertés, ENL) is a political group in the European Parliament launched on 15 June 2015. With 39 members, the group is the smallest in the European Parliament. The largest party of the group by number of MEPs is the National Front representing more than half of ENL’s MEPs with 20 MEPs out of 39. oitavo


European Border and Coast Guard

European Border and Coast Guard (EBCG or Frontex[1]) is a border control and management system for the European Schengen Area that is intended to comprise the collective border and coast guards of Schengen Area members with a new, reformed Frontex agency (to be renamed the European Border and Coast Guard Agency) acting as the coordinating body for the Schengen Area as a whole. These proposals were put forward by the European Commission in response to the ongoing European migrant crisis. The new European Border and Coast Guard Agency would reflect its new strengthened mandate and enhanced tasks and responsibilities. It would aim to introduce common standards of management along the external borders and constantly monitor these borders, with periodic risk analyses and mandatory vulnerability assessments to identify and address weak spots. Liaison officers would be seconded to Member States where the external borders are at risk. They will be able to access the relevant national information systems and to relay the information back to the Agency.



Eurosclerosis is a term to describe the early years of the 1970s. They were difficult, not least because of the economic crisis. Eurosclerosis held the member states in its grip: a relatively inflexible labour market coupled with a system of generous unemployment benefits made their economies inflexible and economic recovery difficult. The economic setbacks seemed to generate a retreat from European cooperation with member states unwilling to move ahead with integrative steps. The Council had accumulated a backlog of no fewer than 1,000 Commission proposals that it was unable to decide upon because member states were blocking decision-making with a reference to the Luxembourg Compromise. This in turn demotivated the Commission. It would take until the end of the 1970s before pessimism gave way to renewed confidence.



Euroscepticism (also known as EU-scepticism[1][2][3]) literally means criticism of the European Union (EU). Some observers though prefer to understand opposition to and total rejection of the EU (anti-EU-ism) as ‘Euroscepticism’ Traditionally, the main source of Euroscepticism has been the notion that integration weakens the nation state, and a desire to slow, halt or reverse integration within the EU. Other views often held by Eurosceptics include perceptions of a democratic deficit in the European Union or a belief that it is too bureaucratic.[6][7] Euroscepticism should not be confused with anti-Europeanism, which refers to the rejection of the culture of Europe and Europeanisation, and sentiments, opinions and discrimination against European ethnic groups.



Federalism refers to the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or ‘federal’ government) with regional governments (provincial, state, Land, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system. t can thus be defined as a form of government in which there is a division of powers between two levels of government of equal status. Some also today characterize the European Union as the pioneering example of federalism in a multi-state setting, in a concept termed the federal union of states.[6]


Federica Mogherini

Federica Mogherini is an Italian politician current High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission in the Juncker Commission since 1 November 2014.


Four freedoms

The ‘four freedoms’ of the European Union are the freedom of movement of goods, people, services and capital over borders. These key principles lie at the heart of the EU and underpin the single market, originally known as the common market. The European Single Market



Francovich institutionalized the principle of state liability. The Commission is the “guardian of the treaties.” One of its key functions is to monitor the implementation of EU law. If a member state is not living up to its obligations under EU law, the Commission can (ultimately) sue the country at the ECJ, and the ECJ can impose penalties on the state. Insolvency Protection Directive.


Free trade agreement

A freetrade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a freetrade agreement (FTA). Such agreements involve cooperation between at least two countries to reduce trade barriers – import quotas and tariffs – and to increase trade of goods and services with each other.



Frontex (from French: Frontières extérieures for “external borders”) is an agency of the European Union established in 2004 to manage the cooperation between national border guards securing its external borders.

On 15 December 2015 the European Commission presented its proposal for a new European Border and Coast Guard Agency that would replace and succeed Frontex, having a stronger role and mandate and forming a European Border and Coast Guard along with national authorities for border management. Frontex’ mission is to help European Union member states implement EU rules on external border controls and to coordinate cooperation between member states in external border management. While it remains the task of each member state to control its own borders, Frontex is vested to ensure that they all do so with the same high standard of efficiency.



In integration theory functionalism is most clearly associated with the work of David Mitrany, an academic born in Romania who was struck by the cruelties of the First and Second World Wars. In 1943 he published A Working Peace System which aimed at setting up a form of world organization that would do away with the evils that were caused by conflicts between nation-states. Instead of the nation-state formula of organizing government on a territorial basis, Mitrany proposed the organization of tasks on the basis of functional interests which would advance human welfare. The neo-functionalism intergration theory has its roots on functionalism



European United Left/Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL) is a left-wing political group in the European Parliament,[7] established in 1995. The group comprises political parties of mostly socialist and communist orientation. It is the 5th biggest and are slightly Eurosceptic and left leaning.


Guy Verhofstadt

Guy Maurice Marie Louise Verhofstadt (Dutch: [ˈɣiː vərˈɦɔfstɑt] ( listen); born 11 April 1953) is a Flemish Belgian politician, leader of the ALDE, very Europhilic. And the arch nemesis of Nigel Farage from EFFD and British UKIP.


High Politics

Within the subfield of international relations, and political science as a whole, the concept high politics covers all matters that are vital to the very survival of the state: namely national and international security concerns. It is often used in opposition to “low politics“.


Intergovernmental institutions

An intergovernmental organization or international governmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states), or of other intergovernmental organizations. Intergovernmental organizations are often called international organizations, although that term may also include international nongovernmental organization such as international nonprofit organizations or multinational corporations.



Intergovernmentalism constitutes the second important branch of integration theory. Integration theory which holds that member states are fully in charge of cooperative steps they take and only collaborate with a view to their direct self-interest. Intergovernmentalist theory has its roots in the realist approach of international relations theory which posits that issues of sovereignty and security are dominant in explaining the behaviour of countries. Governments are the sole players in the international political arena and do so with a view to maintaining the vital stakes of the nation-state, which are political rather than economic. Contrary to neo-functionalists, intergovernmentalists do not accept the idea that non-governmental groups are able to exert a strong influence on the preferences and activities of governments. This then results in a much more sceptical assessment of the willingness of governments to actually transfer sovereignty to a new centre.



Jacques Delors

Jacques Delors is a French economist and politician, previously the eighth President of the European Commission and the first person to serve three terms in that office (between January 1985 and January 1995)

Three decades later, Jacques Delors, a two-term President of the European Commission, could do no better, describing the European Community as a UPO, an unidentified political object. The Treaty of Maastricht broadened the areas that would be part of Community policies, including a timetable to introduce a single currency, the Euro.


Jean Monnet

It was Jean Monnet, Commissioner-General of the French National Planning Board, who came up with a plan that would pool the coal and steel production of France and Germany and create a common market. On 9 May 1950 Monnet’s scheme was presented by the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, Robert Schuman, in a declaration that is nowadays considered to be the EU’s founding moment. An influential supporter of European unity, he is considered as one of the founding fathers of the European Union.


Justice and Home Affairs Council

The Justice and Home Affairs Council (JHA) is one of the configurations of the Council of the European Union and is composed of the justice and home affairs ministers of the 28 European Union member states. The Justice and Home Affairs Council develops cooperation and common policies on various cross-border issues, with the aim of building an EU-wide area of justice. Treaty of Maastrich Under the heading of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) it launched agreements on asylum and immigration policies as well as judicial and police cooperation.


Justus Lipsius

The Justus Lipsius building is a building in Brussels (Belgium) that has been the headquarters of the Council of the European Union since 1995. Unlike the European Parliament, visiting is restricted.


Konrad Adenauer

The founding fathers of the European Union are 11 men officially recognised as major contributors to European unity and the development of what is now the European Union.

Of the 11 in total, sometimes emphasised are three pioneers of unification: Robert Schuman, Paul-Henri Spaak and Konrad Adenauer. First chancellor of West Germany, Adenauer attempted to restore relations with France during his term in office between 1949 and 1963. He was instrumental in bringing about the 1963 Élysée Treaty between the two countries.


Liberal intergovernmentalism

Liberal intergovernmentalism is a EU integration theory. Compared to Hoffmann, Moravcsik pays more attention to the role of domestic, economic influences on the positions of national governments in international negotiations and organizations. These national governments are still the key players in these contexts, however, with minimal influence of supranational actors such as the Commission.


Lisbon Treaty

The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement which amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU). The Treaty of Lisbon was signed by the EU member states on 13 December 2007, and entered into force on 1 December 2009.[2] It amends the Maastricht Treaty (1993), known in updated form as the Treaty on European Union (2007) or TEU, and the Treaty of Rome (1957), known in updated form as the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (2007) or TFEU. Negotiations to modify EU institutions began in 2001, resulting first in the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, which would have repealed the existing European treaties and replaced them with a “constitution”. After a “period of reflection”, member states agreed instead to maintain the existing treaties, but to amend them, salvaging a number of the reforms that had been envisaged in the constitution.


Low politics

Low politics is a concept that covers all matters that are not absolutely vital to the survival of the state as the economics and the social affairs. The low politics are the domain of the state’s welfare. It concerns all things about social or human security. This concept is the opposite of the high politics which concerns the state’s survival and strict national security.


Mare Nostrum

Operation Mare Nostrum (after the ancient Roman name for the Mediterranean: “Our Sea”) was a year-long naval and air operation commenced by the Italian government on October 18, 2013 to tackle the increased immigration to Europe during the second half of 2013 and migratory ship wreckages off Lampedusa.[1] During the operation at least 150,000 migrants, mainly from Africa and the Middle East, arrived safely to Europe.[2] The operation ended on 31 October 2014[3] and was superseded by Frontex‘s Operation Triton. The operation ended on 31 October 2014[3] and was superseded by Frontex‘s Operation Triton, which operates a smaller search and rescue capability. Unlike Mare Nostrum, Operation Triton focused on border protection rather than search and rescue, and operates closer to the Italian coast[5] The termination of Mare Nostrum has been criticized as a cause of the increased death rate among migrants to Europe in the Mediterranean, which increased tenfold between 2014 and 2015.[8] Two major migrant shipwreck disasters which together killed more than 1000 people within the span of a week in April 2015 led to calls to renew the operation


Operation Triton

Operation Triton is a border security operation conducted by Frontex, the European Union‘s border security agency. The operation, under Italian control, began on 1 November 2014 and involves voluntary contributions from 15 other European nations (both EU member states and non-members). Current voluntary contributors to Operation Triton are Croatia, Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, France, Spain, Ireland, Portugal, Austria, Switzerland, Romania, Poland, Lithuania and Malta.[1] The operation was undertaken after Italy ended Operation Mare Nostrum, which had become too costly for a single country to fund; it was costing the Italian government €9 million per month for an operation that lasted 12 months. The Italian government had requested additional funds from the other EU member states but they did not offer the requested support


Martin Schulz

Martin Schulz (born 20 December 1955[1]) is a German and European Social Democratic politician serving as the President of the European Parliament since 2012. Previously he was leader of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament. On 1 July 2014 Martin Schulz was re-elected as European Parliament President.


MPs on Twitter

MEPs operate within one of the world’s most dynamic legislatures. While their institution has gained power over the last 35 years, most MEPs still pine for visibility. They often fail to wrest the spotlight from national legislators. Twitter is one way that MEPs can fight against publicity, communications, and democratic deficits. Our analysis of the extent and nature of MEPs’ Twitter use generates early insights into the ways that MEPs avail themselves of this opportunity. While over 3⁄4 of MEPs have established an account, Twitter does not seem to have revolutionized MEPs’ political communications. The median MEP tweets infrequently, prefers ‘broadcasting’ to ‘chatting’, and, insofar as she is active on Twitter, prefers retweets to other tweet varieties.


Monetary policy

Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, like the central bank or currency board, controls the supply of money, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.


Multi-level governance

Multi-level governance (MLG) emerged as a new perspective for analysing EU politics at the beginning of the 1990s. Many scholars were unhappy with the rather crude conceptualization of the integration debate which pitted member states against supranational actors such as the Commission and the EP. They pointed out that processes of integration are far more complex and varied than the simple transfer of sovereignty from member states to the supranational level. This coincided with a more general trend in politics during the 1980s: the emergence of a different mode of policy-making known as governance. Governance: Term used to refer to a mode of governing characterized by collaborative and networked forms of policy-making.

Decision-making authority has been dispersed over several levels of government and is no longer confined to national governments. It also includes subnational levels (regions) and supranational levels (Commission).


Mutual recognition

Cassis de Dijon was a landmark case because it institutionalized the principle of mutual recognition. The principle of mutual recognition means that a product lawfully marketed in one Member State should be allowed to be marketed in any other Member State, even when the product does not fully comply with the technical rules of the Member State of destination.

The CJ’s 1979 Cassis de Dijon ruling (Case C-120/ 78) is a milestone in the Court’s case law on negative integration. Cassis de Dijon (also known as Crème de Cassis) is a French fruit liqueur. In Germany, however, it could not be sold as ‘liqueur’ because it contained less than 25% alcohol. According to the German government, this minimum alcohol limit was necessary for two reasons. First, it was meant to discourage the marketing of low-alcohol drinks which, so the German government argued, would more easily ‘induce a tolerance towards alcohol than more highly alcoholic drinks’. Second, consumers might be misled when they bought a drink sold as ‘liqueur’ that turned As a result, Germany could not prohibit the sale of Cassis de Dijon as ‘liqueur’. The importance of the Cassis de Dijon ruling, and a series of similar rulings during the late 1970s, lay in the introduction of the principle of ‘mutual recognition’. 



Neofunctionalism is an integration theory which states that member states will work together to reap economic benefits, setting in motion a process in which ever more tasks are delegated to the supranational level. Pluralists consider politics to be a group-based activity and believe that all interests will eventually organize to affect decision-making.



Non-refoulement is a key facet of refugee law, that concerns the protection of refugees from being returned or expelled to places where their lives or freedoms could be threatened. Unlike political asylum, which applies to those who can prove a well-grounded fear of persecution based on certain category of persons, non-refoulement refers to the generic repatriation of people, including refugees into war zones and other disaster locales. The principle of non-refoulement is enshrined in EU law in Article 78(1) TFEU and Article 18 and 19 of the EU’s Charter of Fundamental Rights . Judgments of the European Court of Justice (CJEU) and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) have also consolidated the application of this principle in the EU. However, as countries face increasingly unmanageable migratory pressures, they often try to interpret their international obligations more restrictively. EU and non-EU countries have been criticized on this score.


The ordinary legislative procedure

The ordinary legislative procedure seeks to find a balance between the various institutions involved in EU decision-making (Commission, EP, Council) by giving each institution a specific role in the procedure. The consent of each of these institutions is needed to arrive at a decision. In addition, decision-making within the Council of Ministers takes place with a qualified majority, which means that a proposal can be adopted even though individual member states are opposed to it. Therefore, the ordinary legislative procedure has been structured in such a way that, on the one hand, the balance between the different institutions involved in the process is maintained while, on the other, mechanisms are built in for reaching a conclusion (and thus breaking a potential deadlock).


Paul Henri Charles Spaak

Paul Henri Charles Spaak (25 January 1899 – 31 July 1972) was an influential Belgian politician and statesman also considered as one of the founding fathers of the European Union. Of the 11 in total, sometimes emphasised are three pioneers of unification: Robert Schuman, Paul-Henri Spaak and Konrad Adenauer.



Pluralism is a system of interest representation in which large numbers of interest groups compete with each other for access to governmental decision-making. In a pluralist system, by contrast, any group can in principle gain access to government. However, even if access is obtained there is no guarantee of success because many other groups have access as well. In a corporatist system there are a few powerful interest groups, while in a pluralist system there are many, but less powerful, interest groups. In doing so, they have tended to conclude that the EU is predominantly pluralist. That is, there are many interest groups, and it is easy for them to gain access to EU policy-making but they have to share this access with a range of other groups. In short, the EU is a relatively open system of interest representation, which is typical of pluralism.



Populism is a political doctrine that stems from a viewpoint of struggle between the populace and a ruling faction. Historically, academic definitions of populism vary, and people have often used the term in loose and inconsistent ways to reference appeals to “the people,” demagogy, and “catch-all” politics. The term has also been used as a label for new parties whose classifications are unclear. A factor traditionally held to diminish the value of “populism” as a category has been that, as Margaret Canovan notes in her 1981 study Populism, populists rarely call themselves “populists” and usually reject the term when it is applied to them, differing in that regard from those identified as conservatives or socialists.


Infringement procedure

Infringement procedure is a legal procedure set in motion against a member state if it does not comply with EU legislation.


Preliminary Ruling

Giving preliminary rulings. The third task of the Court is to advise courts in the member states on cases which touch upon EU law. The principles of supremacy and direct effect require courts in the member states to apply EU law in all relevant cases. In those cases where they feel uncertain about the precise interpretation of EU law they can submit their case to the Court and ask it to give a preliminary ruling on the matter (Article 267 TFEU). The ruling is preliminary because the referring court will make the final judgment and has to incorporate the Court’s opinion in its ruling. Obviously, if it fails to do so, interested parties can appeal the ruling in higher level national courts or – if it concerns a ruling of the highest national court – start a case before the Court.


Primary legislation

EU Legislation. EU legislation is divided in primary legislation embodied in the treaties, and secondary legislation in the form of regulations, directives and decisions which are used to implement the policies set out in the treaties. Primary legislation – the Treaties

The treaties constitute the European Union’s ‘primary legislation’, which is comparable to constitutional law at national level. They lay down the fundamental features of the Union, in particular the responsibilities of the various actors in the decision-making process, the legislative procedures, under the Community system and the powers conferred on them.


Regulations in the EU

A Regulation is a type of EU legislation that is directly applicable in the EU and in all member states. The EU uses Regulations for two purposes: it adopts Regulations to organize its own work – for example, when it needs to set up a new agency or adopt rules on the way it hires and pays its staff. Regulations are also used to adopt those EU-wide policies that require legal provisions that are the same in every member state. As the official definition in Fact file 4.1 says, a Regulation is ‘binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States’. This means that a Regulation automatically has force of law within every member state, without the need for any further activity on the part of member state governments. This is different for Directives.


Relais actors

‘Relais actors’ is the the promotion of consensus-building within and between parliamentary committees, and the development of intraorganizational rules in response to early agreements in the co-decision procedure. An examination of the EP’s processing of the advanced therapies dossier provides an ‘unusual’ but vivid illustration of how the identification of committee rapporteurs as the most important parliamentary ‘relais actors’ fails to capture the increasingly important roles performed by shadow rapporteurs.


Robert Schuman

Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Robert Schuman (French pronunciation:  [ʁɔbɛʁ ʃuman]; 29 June 1886 – 4 September 1963) was a Luxembourg-born French statesman. Schuman was a Christian Democrat (MRP) and an independent political thinker and activist. Twice Prime Minister of France, a reformist Minister of Finance and a Foreign Minister, he was instrumental in building post-war European and trans-Atlantic institutions and is regarded as one of the founders of the European Union, the Council of Europe and NATO.

Robert Schuman. On 9 May 1950 he proposed a plan that laid the foundation for today’s European Union by proposing to set up a European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). On 9 May 1950 Monnet’s scheme was presented by the French minister of Foreign Affairs, Robert Schuman, in a declaration that is nowadays considered to be the EU’s founding moment.


Rotating presidency

The Presidency of the Council of the European Union is responsible for the functioning of the Council of the European Union, the upper house of the EU legislature. It rotates among the member states of the EU every six months. The presidency is not an individual, but rather the position is held by a national government. It is sometimes incorrectly referred to as the President of the European Union. The presidency’s function is to chair meetings of the Council, determine its agendas, set a work programme and facilitate dialogue both at Council meetings and with other EU institutions. The presidency is currently (as of July 2016) held by Slovakia.



The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D[1]) is the political group in the European Parliament of the Party of European Socialists (PES).[13] The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats was officially founded as a Socialist Group on 29 June 1953 which makes it the second oldest political groups in the European Parliament after ALDE. It adopted its present-day name on 23 June 2009.[14] Centre-left in orientation,[15] the group mostly comprises social-democratic parties, and is affiliated to the Progressive Alliance. Second biggest. Very Europhilic.


The Schengenacquis

The Schengenacquis‘ is derived from the 1990 Schengen Convention to implement the 1985 Schengen agreement. It was divided between the Treaty establishing the European Communities and the Treaty on European Union under the Schengen protocol to the Amsterdam Treaty. Now that the Schengen Agreement is part of the acquis communautaire, it has, for EU members, lost the status of a treaty, which could only be amended according to its terms. Instead, amendments are made according to the legislative procedure of the EU under EU treaties. One of the hallmarks of the EU.


Schengen zone

The Schengen Area (pronunciation: /ˈʃɛŋən/, /ˈʃɛŋɡən/) is the area composed of 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and any other type of border control at their mutual borders. The area mostly functions as a single country for international travel purposes with a common visa policy. The area is named after the Schengen Agreement. States in the Schengen Area have eliminated border controls with the other Schengen members and strengthened border controls with non-Schengen countries.

Twenty-two of the twenty-eight European Union (EU) member states participate in the Schengen Area. Of the six EU members that are not part of the Schengen Area, four – Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, and Romania – are legally obliged and wish to join the area, while the other two – the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom – maintain opt-outs. The four European Free Trade Association (EFTA) member states, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland, are not members of the EU, but have signed agreements on association with the Schengen Agreement. Three European microstatesMonaco, San Marino, and Vatican City – can be considered de facto participants.


Schuman Declaration

The Schuman Declaration is the statement laid forward by the French foreign minister Robert Schuman on 9 May 1950. Inspired and for the most part drafted by Jean Monnet, this was a proposal to place Franco-German production of coal and steel under one common High Authority. This organization would be open to participation to other European countries. This cooperation was to be designed in such a way as to create common interests between European countries which would lead to gradual political integration, a condition for the pacification of relations between them: “Europe will not be made all at once, or according to a single plan. It will be built through concrete achievements which first create a de facto solidarity. The coming together of the nations of Europe requires the elimination of the age-old opposition of France and Germany”.


Secondary legislation

EU secondary legislation is made by the EU institutions. The five EU legal instruments specifically provided for in the Treaties are: Regulations, Directives, Decisions, Recommendations and Opinions. and secondary legislation in the form of regulations, directives and decisions which are used to implement the policies set out in the treaties.


Single European Act

As we saw in Chapter 1, the 1986 Single European Act (SEA) was an important step in the development of the European Union. It revived the project of creating one internal market between the member states and provided new impetus to an organization that had been characterized by stagnation in the years before. Among EU scholars, the SEA incited a fierce debate on what explained this major step forward. In an article published in 1989, Wayne Sandholtz and John Zysman argued that the adoption of the Single European Act was the result of activism by supranational actors, in particular the European Commission supported by a coalition of transnational business groups (‘ 1992: Recasting the European Bargain’, World Politics, 42: 95– 121). These supranational actors provided the political leadership that produced the SEA proposals and convinced member state governments to agree to them. Unlike ‘traditional’ neo-functionalists, Sandholtz and Zysman did not think that functional spillovers were important but like neo-functionalists they stressed the importance of supranational actors in the integration process.


Single market (AKA common market)

The Court’s Cassis ruling made clear that there was a wide gulf between the principles and the practice of the Community’s free trade area. Customs duties might have been abolished, but there were so many other barriers that a truly single market did not exist yet. In 1985 a new Commission took office under the leadership of Jacques Delors, who made the completion of the single market one of its key ambitions. At the request of the European Council the Commission made a proposal in which it sketched a timeline that would remove all barriers by 1992. To realize this goal it was deemed necessary to facilitate decision-making in all policy areas relating to the single market. This necessitated a revision of the treaties, which was achieved via the Single European Act (SEA). The SEA – signed in 1986 – included measures to advance the single market project and further broadened the EU’s sphere of activity by including environmental policies, social policy and measures to increase economic   The European Single Market. The Single Market refers to the EU as one territory without any internal borders or other regulatory obstacles to the free movement of goods and services. A functioning Single Market stimulates competition and trade, improves efficiency, raises quality, and helps cut prices.



Sovereignty is understood in jurisprudence as the full right and power of a governing body to govern itself without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity.



Spillover is the major driver of integration. It exists in three varieties – functional, political and cultivated It refers to ‘the way in which the creation and deepening of integration in one economic sector creates pressures for further economic integration within and beyond that sector and greater authoritative capacity at the European level’.



A state is a type of polity that is an organized political community living under a single system of government.[1] States may or may not be sovereign. For instance, federated states are members of a federal union, and may have only partial sovereignty, but are, nonetheless, states.[1] Some states are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony, in which ultimate sovereignty lies in another state.[2] States that are sovereign are known as sovereign states.


Supranational institutions

The same ambiguity can be found in the EU’s institutional set-up and decision-making processes. The EU’s supranational institutions (Commission, EP, Court of Justice) play important roles, much more so than the secretariats and adjudication bodies of other international organizations. A longstanding controversy among students of EU politics is to what extent these supranational bodies have real power vis-à-vis the member state governments (see Controversy 2.1 in Chapter 2). Much of this debate has focused on the ‘high politics’ of European integration, such as treaty revisions. It is undeniable, however, that in the daily policy-making processes of the EU the supranational institutions play key roles, which leads to very different policy-making dynamics than in other international organizations.



Supremacy is a major legal principle in EU law holding that if national legislation is in conflict with EU law, EU law overrides national legislation.

The Costa v. ENEL judgment established the principle of supremacy. The ECJ offered a nuanced and very important ruling. It ruled, firstly, that Costa did not have legal standing to challenge the legality, under Community law, of ENEL’s nationalization, since the Treaty of Rome did not have direct effect. More importantly, though, the ECJ ruled that Costa, and other individuals in the Community, did have the right to challenge a national law on the basis of its alleged incompatibility with Community law.


Symbols of European unity

The flag of Europe is used to represent both the European Union and the Council of Europe. It consists of a circle of 12 golden (yellow) stars on a blue background. The blue represents the west, the number of stars represents completeness while their position in a circle represents unity. Parliament shall recognise and espouse the following symbols of the Union: the flag showing a circle of twelve golden stars on a blue background; the anthem based on the “Ode to Joy” from the Ninth Symphony by Ludwig van Beethoven; the motto ’United in diversity’.


The Greens-EFA

The Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA) is the political group in the European Parliament containing green, regionalist and nationalist political parties.[4][5][6] The group was formed following the 1999 European elections for the 5th European Parliament. 4th biggest. Left, Europhilic.


Theories of European integration

The question of how to avoid wars between the nation-states was essential for the first theories. Federalism and Functionalism proposed the containment of the nation-state, while Transactionalism sought to theorise the conditions for the stabilisation of the nation-state system.

One of the most influential theories of European integration is neofunctionalism, developed by Ernst B. Haas (1958) and further investigated by Leon Lindberg (1963). The important debate between neofunctionalism and (liberal) intergovernmentalism still remains central in understanding the development and setbacks of the European Union. But as the empirical world has changed, so have the theories and thus the understanding of European Integration. Today there is a relatively new focus on the complex policy-making in the EU and multi-level governance (MLG) trying to produce a theory of the workings and development of the EU.


Theresa May

Theresa Mary May, PC, MP is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party, in office since July 2016. She has also been the Member of Parliament for the Maidenhead constituency since 1997.


9 of May

9 of May is the European Union Day because of the Schuman Declaration.



Transposition is when a Directive is adopted, each of the EU member states needs to adopt a (domestic) law that conforms to that Directive. This is what is meant by the phrase that a Directive is ‘binding as to the result to be achieved’ but that it ‘leave[ s] to the national authorities the choice of form and methods’. Hence, a Directive needs to be ‘transposed’ by the member states, whereas a Regulation does not. Each Directive itself specifies the date before which transposition needs to have taken place.


Turnover in the Council of the European Union

Our empirical analysis confirms a prediction from the classic turnover literature: higher levels of turnover, we find, correlate with lower levels of institutional success.


Van Gend en Loos

The Community constitutes a new legal order of international law for the benefit of which the states have limited their sovereign rights, albeit within limited fields and the subjects of which comprise not only member states but also their nationals. Independently of the legislation of member states, community law therefore not only imposes obligations on individuals but is also intended to confer upon them rights which become part of their legal heritage. These rights arise not only where they are expressly granted by the treaty, but also by reason of obligations which the treaty imposes in a clearly defined way upon individuals as well as upon the member states and upon the institutions of the community.” The Van Gend en Loos judgment established the principle of direct effect.


Walter Hallstein

Walter Hallstein was a German academic, diplomat, and politician. He was the first president of the Commission of the European Economic Community and one of the founding fathers of the European Union.


White Paper

White Papers communicate a decided Commission policy or approach on a particular issue. They are chiefly intended as statements of Commission policy, rather than a consultation or starting point for debate. A White Paper is a discussion document from the European Commission that presents specific proposals for EU action.


Treaty Establishing the EAEC

The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) is an international organisation founded in 1957 with the purpose of creating a specialist market for nuclear power in Europe, developing nuclear energy and distributing it to its member states while selling the surplus to non-member states. It is legally distinct from the European Union (EU), but has the same membership, and is governed by the EU’s institutions. Since 2014, Switzerland has also participated in Euratom programmes as an associated state.[1]

Currently, its main focus is on the construction of the International Fusion Reactor ITER[2] financed under the nuclear part of FP7. Euratom also provides a mechanism for providing loans to finance nuclear projects in the EU.

It was established by the Euratom Treaty on 25 March 1957 alongside the European Economic Community (EEC), being taken over by the executive institutions of the EEC in 1967. Although other communities were merged in 1993 and 2009, the nuclear program has maintained a legally distinct nature from the European Union.


Treaty Establishing the ECSC

The Treaty of Paris (formally the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community) was signed on 18 April 1951 between France, West Germany, Italy and the three Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands), establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which subsequently became part of the European Union. The treaty came into force on 23 July 1952 and expired on 23 July 2002, exactly fifty years after it came into effect.

The treaty was seen as producing diplomatic and economic stability in western Europe after the Second World War. Some of the main enemies during the war were now sharing production of coal and steel, the key-resources which previously had been central to the war effort.


Treaty Establishing the EEC

The Treaty of Rome, officially the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (TEEC), is an international agreement that led to the creation of the European Economic Community (EEC). It was signed on 25 March 1957 by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany and came into force on 1 January 1958. It remains one of the two most important treaties in the modern-day European Union (EU).

The TEEC proposed the progressive reduction of customs duties and the establishment of a customs union. It proposed to create a single market for goods, labour, services, and capital across the EEC’s member states. It also proposed the creation of common transport and agriculture policies and a European social fund and established the European Commission. Since its signature, the treaty’s name has been retrospectively amended on several occasions. The Maastricht Treaty of 1992 removed the word “economic” from the Treaty of Rome’s official title and, in 2009, the Treaty of Lisbon renamed it the “Treaty on the functioning of the European Union”.


Treaty of Amsterdam

The Amsterdam Treaty, officially the Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, was signed on 2 October 1997, and entered into force on 1 May 1999;[1] it made substantial changes to the Treaty of Maastricht, which had been signed in 1992.

Under the Treaty of Amsterdam, member states agreed to devolve certain powers from national governments to the European Parliament across diverse areas, including legislating on immigration, adopting civil and criminal laws, and enacting foreign and security policy (CFSP), as well as implementing institutional changes for expansion as new member nations join the EU.


Treaty of Lisbon

The Treaty of Lisbon (initially known as the Reform Treaty) is an international agreement which amends the two treaties which form the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU). The Treaty of Lisbon was signed by the EU member states on 13 December 2007, and entered into force on 1 December 2009.[2] It amends the Maastricht Treaty (1993), known in updated form as the Treaty on European Union (2007) or TEU, and the Treaty of Rome (1957), known in updated form as the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (2007) or TFEU.[3]

Prominent changes included the move from unanimity to qualified majority voting in at least 45 policy areas in the Council of Ministers, a change in calculating such a majority to a new double majority, a more powerful European Parliament forming a bicameral legislature alongside the Council of Ministers under the ordinary legislative procedure, a consolidated legal personality for the EU and the creation of a long-term President of the European Council and a High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The Treaty also made the Union’s bill of rights, the Charter of Fundamental Rights, legally binding. The Treaty for the first time gave member states the explicit legal right to leave the EU and the procedure to do so.


Treaty of Nice

The Treaty of Nice was signed by European leaders on 26 February 2001 and came into force on 1 February 2003.

It amended the Maastricht Treaty (or the Treaty on European Union) and the Treaty of Rome (or the Treaty establishing the European Community which, before the Maastricht Treaty, was the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community). The Treaty of Nice reformed the institutional structure of the European Union to withstand eastward expansion, a task which was originally intended to have been done by the Amsterdam Treaty, but failed to be addressed at the time.

The entrance into force of the treaty was in doubt for a time, after its initial rejection by Irish voters in a referendum in June 2001. This referendum result was reversed in a subsequent referendum held a little over a year later.


Treaty on European Union

The Treaty on European Union (2007) is one of the primary Treaties of the European Union, alongside the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). The TEU forms the basis of EU law, by setting out general principles of the EU’s purpose, the governance of its central institutions (such as the Commission, Parliament, and Council), as well as the rules on external, foreign and security policy.


Treaty on the Functioning of the EU

The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (2007) is one of two primary Treaties of the European Union, alongside the Treaty on European Union (TEU). Originating as the Treaty of Rome, the TFEU forms the detailed basis of EU law, by setting out the scope of the EU’s authority to legislate and the principles of law in those areas where EU law operates.

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